Land surveying is critical for the design and construction of various aspects like roads, buildings, and so on. Surveys are conducted to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, etc.
All land surveying activities must be done accurately to achieve the best results. Surveyors should, thus, make use of certain equipment which may include:
GPS equipment- It is used to take variations in height between two points, their distance and directions by contacting the satellite.
Tripod equipment- Tripods are used to support surveying instruments such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. It ought to be stable because when it is moved, it must be reset and a survey repeated. Tripod equipment can get waterlogged and produce inaccurate results, so their material should be carefully selected.
Measurement equipment- A measuring wheel is the most commonly used. The wheel is rolled along the desired measurement and its revolution counted by an odometer which is usually attached to it.
Theodolites- They are used to realize horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They give off beams of laser light that is used to determine elevation. They are different based on the various tasks necessary during construction. They are either self-level or manual. Self-level lasers find their own levels independently, while manual lasers require being adjusted while in use.
Laser receivers- They are combined with laser levels to cover wider areas during land surveys. They pick up the beams of light from the laser levels and make a sound once the right level has been achieved. They make it possible to use laser levels outside and when the sun is shining so bright.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are used in the evaluation of slopes. Single grade lasers are used to acquire the gradient of one plane, while dual grade lasers work on two planes simultaneously.
The rotating lasers produce a beam of light from a beacon to assess an area over 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are utilized to produce crosses or plumb lines.
Pipe lasers- This kind of lasers are very effective when new pipes, drains, or sewers are due for installation. When a pipe has been laid, the laser beam light is used to place the other in line with the others to achieve accuracy in the piping.